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The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) call for an integrated response, the kind that has defined Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs) efforts in the past decade. NTD interventions have the greatest relevance for SDG3, the health goal, where the focus on equity, and its commitment to reaching people in need of health services, wherever they may live and whatever their circumstances, is fundamentally aligned with the target of Universal Health Coverage. NTD interventions, however, also affect and are affected by many of the other development areas covered under the 2030 Agenda. Strategies such as mass drug administration or the programmatic integration of NTD and WASH activities (SDG6) are driven by effective global partnerships (SDG17). Intervention against the NTDs can also have an impact on poverty (SDG1) and hunger (SDG2), can improve education (SDG4), work and economic growth (SDG8), thereby reducing inequalities (SDG10). The community-led distribution of donated medicines to more than 1 billion people reinforces women’s empowerment (SDG5), logistics infrastructure (SDG9) and non-discrimination against disability (SDG16). Interventions to curb mosquito-borne NTDs contribute to the goals of urban sustainability (SDG11) and resilience to climate change (SDG13), while the safe use of insecticides supports the goal of sustainable ecosystems (SDG15). Although indirectly, interventions to control water- and animal-related NTDs can facilitate the goals of small-scale fishing (SDG14) and sustainable hydroelectricity and biofuels (SDG7). NTDs proliferate in less developed areas in countries across the income spectrum, areas where large numbers of people have little or no access to adequate health care, clean water, sanitation, housing, education, transport and information. This scoping review assesses how in this context, ending the epidemic of the NTDs can impact and improve our prospects of attaining the SDGs.
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Transmitted by the Aedes mosquito, dengue affects more than 100 countries and is rapidly emerging as the leading vector-borne disease. There has been a 30-fold increase in the number of cases reported since 1960. The cost of the illness to the health system and to society at large is estimated at several billions of dollars annually. The health sector response has depended in large part on controlling mosquito populations during outbreaks. Recently, the first-ever dengue vaccine received regulatory approval for use in several countries. However, its roll-out and long-term impact still needs to be evaluated in the field. In this paper, we examine how the introduction of this vaccine might alter the investment case for sustained effort to control mosquitoes. To our knowledge, this is the first economic evaluation of mosquito control in the era of the dengue vaccine. We model the cost and effects of mosquito control in Brazil, Columbia, Malaysia, Mexico, the Philippines, and Thailand. We evaluate the cost-effectiveness of mosquito control in the presence of a vaccine that does not offer full protection to all individuals. Our results suggest that sustained mosquito control will continue to be cost-effective, even if roll-out of the current vaccine is highly targeted and low-cost. These results support current global policies and strategies for the prevention and control of dengue.
In PLoS Negl Trop Dis, 0001.